Sunday, August 11, 2019

diamond meaning

diamond meaning and types 

diamond meaningDiamonds are a mineral, a natural crystalline substance, the transparent form of pure carbon or almost pure carbon. Diamonds have extraordinary properties. Diamonds have a wide color range in worldwide with very low reactivity to chemicals and high refraction also include high dispersion of fire, rarity, and, extreme hardness and durability. Diamonds are known as the "king of precious stones", they sparkle, dazzle and symbolize purity and power.

diamond meaning
A diamond is the oldest thing you will ever own, probably 3 billion years old, completely two-thirds the age of the earth. A diamond is a strategic, exclusive and high-tech super material for every technological society. Diamond is suitable for the birthstone in the month of April.

A diamond is ultimately composed of the single element which is carbon, and it is the arrangement of the C atoms in the lattice that give a diamond its amazing properties. Both diamond and graphite are composed of carbon only. However, a diamond is the hardest known material and graphite is one of the softest, this was caused by a rearrangement of the way the atoms are bound together. Diamond carbon atoms are connected in a regular three-dimensional lattice with a repeating or crystalline pattern.

diamond meaningDiamond is part of the cubic or 'isometric' crystal system. The most common crystal structures or arrangements are:
  • Octahedron (8 faces)
  • Cube (6 faces)
  • Dodecahedron (12 faces)

A diamond is the ultimate gem, with few weak points and many strong points. Diamonds are known to be the most difficult substance found in nature, but few people realize that diamonds are four times harder than the next hardest natural mineral, corundum sapphires and rubies.

Natural diamonds are formed deep in the earth's mantle layer of the element carbon, about 180 km below the surface, where high temperatures and pressures exist. Some diamonds form at depths of 300 - 400 kilometers, or even deeper, but these diamonds are very rare.

The earth's mantle consists of molten rock, metals and other materials. The temperature is high at this depth - between degree 1100 ° C and 1400 ° C. The high pressure required to form diamonds is caused by the weight of 180 km of rocks pressing downwards. In addition to carbon, there are very small amounts of other substances, such as nitrogen and sulfur, that can get stuck in the crystal when it is formed in the mantle. These impurities can color the diamond. One of the most rare is pink diamonds.

Natural diamonds are classified by the type and level of impurities found in them.

  • Type Ia diamond – The most natural good quality diamonds are of this type, which contain easily up to 0.3% nitrogen.
  • Type Ib diamond - Very rare (~ 0.1%) in nature, but almost all synthetic (industrial) diamonds are of this type. They contain nitrogen in concentrations up to 500 ppm.
  • Type IIa diamonds – Very rare in nature look wise, these diamonds contain little nitrogen that it cannot be detected by the usual IR or UV absorption measurements.
  • Type IIb diamond - Very rare in nature. These have such a low nitrogen concentration (even lower than type IIa) that the crystal is a p-type semiconductor (due to non-compensated B-acceptor impurities).
Because of the unique internal structure and light reflections, when cut in the right proportions, diamonds collect light in themselves and then send it back into a shower of fire and shine. The life of a polished diamond is considered as the amount of light that is reflected back to the viewer. The term life is also called brilliance. If the diamond is cut with good proportions, the sparkle will be increased. Gloss refers to the surface gloss on a polished diamond. Fire the color play that can be seen from the crown of a polished diamond. As the light enters the diamond, it is refracted and divided into the colors of the spectrum and reflected back. The resulting rainbow-like flashes of light are called fire (diamond meaning).

The hardness of diamond is an important feature. As an industrial tool it has many applications and modern industry is highly dependent on it. As a gemstone it is resistant to scratches and wear, which ensures that a finished gemstone retains its luster and shine. Due to the hardness and the unique way in which it is manufactured, a diamond polishes very slowly. It forms look like an unusually flat, absolutely polished adamantine surface, with exclusively sharp, straight edges between facets and no others gem can match this brushing standard.

Diamond has the highest heat conductivity of any known substance because the densely packed crystal structure conducts heat very quickly. The main thermal conductivity of diamond is exactly five times higher than that of copper. This explains why a diamond feels cold at the first touch, but gets warm quickly by the heat of your fingers.

Only about a fifth of all mined diamonds can be considered as gem quality. From 40 to 250 tons of gravel and sand must be processed today to extract one rough diamond from the world's thinning diamond deposits. Experts estimate that all known diamond reserves will be exhausted within 30 to 40 years. 75 - 80% of all mined diamonds are used for industrial applications such as drilling, grinding or sawing. The rest is used for jewelry or investment. Less than 2% of the mined diamonds are of such a high quality that they can be considered as investment quality.

On average, 250 tons of ore must be mined and processed to produce a diamond of one carat of gemstone quality. When mining is complete, sorters look at rough diamonds and separate them into small piles by shape, size and quality, a long and arduous process.

Diamonds were mainly used as talismans to ward off evil and to protect the wearer in battle. Although there was some mystique about diamonds because they were so rare and hard to come by, many early cultures believed they had magical properties

diamond meaning: The word diamond comes from the Greek word "adamas" which means invincible, in reference to the eternity of love. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian of Austria gave Maria of Burgundy a diamond ring, with which he started the tradition of diamond engagement rings. The reason that a woman wears an engagement ring on her third finger of her left hand dates from the Egyptian belief that the vena amoris (vein of love) ran directly spreading from the heart to the top of that fixger.

Many of the rarest diamonds occur due to rare natural accidents in the colors pink, blue, green, amber or even red. These diamonds are called Fancy diamonds and are evaluated by a different set of color standards. Fancy diamonds are more varieties and the most expensive due to their extreme rarity.
It is the only gem mineral that consists of one element, making it the purest gem of the earth. That is why it is fitting that the purest and most brilliant of all the gems in the world make the diamond engagement ring the perfect symbol of eternal love.

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condom definition

condom definition with usage

condom definitionA condom is a sheath of thin and elastic rubber that is used during sexual intercourse. It is worn over the penis by men and is used to prevent pregnancy and the development of sexually transmitted diseases. Other terms using of condoms are rubber and prophylactic.

condom definition
A condom prevents the man's sperm from entering a vagina or the reproductive organ of a sexual partner.

Discovered evidence shows that since 150 AD Egyptians have been using condoms for contraception or ritual purposes. A published description of a condom was found in Italy in the 1500s. Soaking the cloth in a certain chemical solution and drying the cloth before use has proven to be effective against syphilis.

In 1855 Charles Goodyear produced the first condom made of rubber. These rather thick devices were reusable but expensive. Thinner condoms were not developed in Germany until 1912.

The male condom is worn around the penis while the penis is in an excited state, which means that it is upright. It comes rolled in a small flat package. Before you apply it, a small space must remain at the tip of the condom to allow room for collecting sperm. After ejaculation, the penis must be pulled out of the vagina before softening to prevent sperm from accidentally entering the vagina. A used condom must be properly disposed of after sexual intercourse and may only be used once.

A person, male or female, can develop allergies to latex, the material from which condoms are made. The penis or vagina can also be irritated by lubricants used in some condoms.

condom definition - A contraceptive

 Birth control means a process that helps both men and women to fight unwanted pregnancy. You can prevent pregnancy with the help of a condom. When using a condom, remember one thing that it is used accurately and correctly according to the printed instructions on the product. Although there are different ways of birth control. Some types of processes cannot help to protect against sexually transmitted diseases. Condom is one thing that can prevent unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

There are two types of condoms on the market, such as the male condom and the female condom. The male condom is supplied with rubber condoms. It is basically thin in texture that is basically made from various materials such as plastic, animal membrane and latex. This condom is rolled over a stiff penis. It acts as a cover for men's sperm, which protects men's sperm, and it cannot pass through the sperm fluid and protect it from penetrating a woman's vagina.

condom definition: Basically, condoms are made with one specific type of rubber named latex. Latex condoms are very effective in nature and help prevent STDs. These days these products are made of polyurethane. These types of condoms are more expensive than latex condoms. These are ideal or suitable for people who are allergic to latex. Natural condoms are known. It is made with animal membranes (lambskin). These types of condoms are qualitatively good, very useful and effective in nature. It protects against unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. It is more expensive than the normal condom.

Some basic issues need to be kept in mind when buying a condom:

Condoms have different characteristics. Different types of sizes, materials and shapes. The basic characteristics below should be kept in mind when purchasing this type of product.

Size: The standard size fits well with most men. Extra large condoms are available in tight sizes that are slightly smaller and tighter than the standard size.

Shape: some condoms available with a nipple pattern on the end to carry the fluid when the man ejaculates. Others come in a rounded shape at the end.

Thickness: this factor is very important when you have sexual intercourse. Condoms with extra strength are found on the market for a long time. Thickness can prevent fracture problems and is ideal for rectal sex. Thin texture is ideal for people who want to enjoy natural feeling.

Lubrication: Lubrication can kill the sperm and bacteria in the fluid. It can provide some extra protection to prevent unwanted pregnancy, especially if the condom breaks. Lubricated condoms have a bad taste and are not recommended for oral sex.

Flavored: these condoms are made for men and suggest to wear with oral sex. These are not lubricated and have a mild taste (usually mint). Color: Condoms come in many colors. The colored is less effective.

When should it use: condom definition

A man must wear it at any time when he inserts his penis into the vagina of the female. It helps to prevent the sexually transmitted disease. Men are often infected with STDs when they take oral sex, so a condom must be worn at that time. The condom must be worn before there is contact and must be removed and properly disposed of after the man has had an orgasm.

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Saturday, August 10, 2019


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meaning of stalking

meaning of stalking with prevention

meaning of stalkingJust like domestic violence, stalking is a crime of power and control. The term stalking means the act or crime of intentionally engaging and repeatedly following or harassing a behavior directed at a specific person in circumstances that would cause a reasonable person to fear injury or death, in particular because of explicit or implied threats to his or her safety or the safety of others or suffering significant emotional distress.

meaning of stalking
Stalking behavior is related to intimidation and intimidation and can follow or follow the victim personally. The term stalking is used with some different definitions in psychiatry and psychology, as well as in some jurisdictions as a term for an offense.

Although stalking is illegal in most parts of the world, some actions that contribute to stalking can be legal, such as gathering information, calling someone, texting, sending gifts, emailing or instant messaging. They become illegal when they violate the legal definition of harassment (for example, an action such as sending a text is usually not illegal, but is illegal when it is often repeated to an unwilling recipient). The law of the United Kingdom even stipulates that the incident only needs to happen twice if the attacker has to be aware that his behavior is unacceptable (for example, two phone calls to a stranger, two gifts, following the victim and then calling, etc.) ).

Stalking is a crime that can affect anyone

Stalking is when someone repeatedly harasses, threatens or intimidates another person who does not want their attention. This person can appear at a person's home or workplace every day or night, make threatening phone calls, follow the victim on foot or by car, send written notes or leave notes in places the victim can find, or even vandalize personal property of the victim. They are obsessed with "owning" the victim.

Stalking is illegal in all states, although the laws and legal definitions of stalking vary from state to state.A meaning of stalking anyone can become a stalker regardless of race, gender, age, background, status or location. And the same applies to the stalking victim. There is no set pattern to identify a stalker. They all differ.

Anyone who is stalked should contact a victim specialist in their area to come up with a safety plan. Although the act of stalking is illegal, the many acts that make up the stalking behavior are not illegal. It is not illegal to call someone on the phone, visit their home, send e-mail, send gifts, etc. But when these unwanted actions are repeated repeatedly over time and the victim does not respond like the Stalker would like, they can lead to the danger of violence.

Cultural norms and meaning influence the way stalking is defined. Scholars note that the majority of men and women admit that they display different stalking-like behaviors after a fracture, but stop this behavior over time, suggesting that "involvement in low levels of unwanted pursuit behavior for a relatively short time, especially in the context of breaking a relationship, can be normative for heterosexual dating relationships that occur in American culture.

Stalking is following someone or something very close and following every movement. If you are a very famous movie star, it is very likely that someone will stalk you even if you read this sentence!

The verb stalking means chasing carefully and often stealthily. It was originally used in dictionary to describe hunters following their prey and waiting for the precise moment to attack. In its more recent, everyday usage, stalking and its run-like stalking refer to the act of chasing a person, often because you have an unhealthy obsession with them. Stalking your present or ex-girlfriend to see if she's dating someone may seem like a good idea, but it's unwise and illegal!

Types of victims in meaning of stalking

Based on work with stalking victims in Australia for eight years, Mullen and Pathé identified different types of stalking victims depending on their previous relationship with the stalker. These are: 

Earlier intimacies: victims who had previously had an intimate relationship with their stalker. In the article Mullen and Pathé describe this as the largest category, the most common victim profile is a woman who has previously shared an intimate relationship with her (mostly) male stalker. These victims are more likely to be exposed to violence by their stalker, especially if the stalker had a criminal history. Moreover, victims (date stalkers) have less chance of violence from their stalkers. A (date stalker) is considered as a person who had an intimate relationship with the victim, but who was short-lived.

Informal acquaintances and friends: most male stalking victims fall under this category. This category of victims also includes neighboring stalking. This can lead to a change in the victim's place of residence. meaning of stalking

Professional contacts: these are victims who have been stalked by patients, clients or students with whom they have had a professional relationship. Certain professions such as care providers, teachers and lawyers run a higher risk of stalking.

Contacts in the workplace: the stalkers of these victims usually visit them at their workplace, which means that they are an employer, employee or customer. When victims get stalkers in their workplace, this poses a threat not only to the safety of the victims, but also to the safety of other people.

Foreigners: these victims are usually unaware of how their stalkers started to stalk because these stalkers usually form a sense of admiration for their remote victims.

The famous: most of these victims are people who are heavily portrayed on media, but can also be people such as politicians and athletes.

NOTE: Stalking is often considered aggravated when the behavior in question also violates a restrictive order that protects the victim.

How to prevent someone Cyber from sneaking up on you

Call 911 if you are in immediate danger. Contact your local police to report stalking and stalking-related incidents and / or threats.  Office on Violence Against Women does not provide services directly in all states to the general public. Find anytime local help on our map or call the national hotline:

National center for crime victims
1-855-4-VICTIM (1-855-484-2846)
For more information visit: Stalking Resource Center

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pound to rupee pakistan

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pound to inr

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pound to inr
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Friday, August 9, 2019

how are diamonds formed

how are diamonds formed worldwide

how are diamonds formed: Many people assume that diamonds are created by the metamorphism of coal. This is not true at all. Loose diamonds are discovered in diamond mines all over the world. Let's see how these beautiful stones came to the surface.

how are diamonds formed
how are diamonds formed
Let's start with natural diamonds. These are formed and found about 100 miles below the earth's surface. At this depth, carbon-rich rocks are provided with sufficient heat and pressure to melt. The high temperatures are generated by the earth's mantle, a layer made of molten rock that is compressed by the pressure of miles and miles of earth on top. This layer keeps churning and when the conditions are just perfect, molten rock can move upwards and cool down over time. These parts of cooled molten rock can contain diamonds. Needless to say, this is a process that takes hundreds and perhaps thousands of years.

Education and growth how are diamonds formed

Diamonds in the mantle form through a metasomatic process in which a C-O-H-N-S liquid or melt dissolves minerals in a rock and replaces them with new minerals. (The vague term C-O-H-N-S is commonly used because the exact composition is not known.) Diamonds form from this liquid by reduction of oxidized carbon (e.g., CO2 or CO3) or oxidation of a reduced phase such as methane.

Carbon sources

The amount of carbon in the jacket is not well limited, but the concentration is estimated at 0.5 to 1 parts per thousand. [55] It has two stable isotopes, 12 ° C and 13 ° C, in a mass ratio of approximately 99: 1. This ratio has a wide range in meteorites, which means that it was probably also wide in the early earth. It can also be changed by surface processes such as photosynthesis. The fraction is generally compared to a standard sample with a ratio of 813C expressed in parts per thousand. Common rocks of the mantle such as basalt, carbonatite and kimberlite have ratios between −8 and −2

Surface distribution

Geological provinces of the world. The pink and orange areas are shields and platforms, which together form cratons.

Diamonds are too far from evenly distributed over the earth. In developin g world a rule of thumb as  known as Clifford's rule in states that they are almost always found in kimberlites on the oldest part of cratons, the stable cores of continents with a typical age of 2.5 billion years or more. The Argyle diamond mine in Australia, the largest producer of weight-based diamonds in the world, is located in a mobile belt, also known as an orogenic belt, a weaker zone around the central kraton that has undergone compression tectonics. The guest stone is lamproiet instead of kimberlite. Lamp roses with diamonds that are not economically viable are also found in the United States, India and Australia. [55] In addition, diamonds in the Wawa belt of the Superior province of Canada and microdiamonds in the island arch of Japan are found in a type of rock called lamprophyre.

Read also about diamond uses

Kimberlites can be found in narrow (1 to 4 meters) dikes and sills, and in pipes with diameters ranging from approximately 75 m to 1.5 km. Fresh stone is dark blueish green to greenish gray, but quickly turns brown and crumbles after exposure. [62] It is a hybrid rock with a chaotic mixture of small minerals and rock fragments (class) up to the size of watermelons. They are a mixture of xenocrysts and xenolites (minerals and rocks carried by the lower crust and mantle), pieces of surface rock, altered minerals such as serpentine and new minerals that crystallized during the eruption. The texture varies with depth. The composition forms a continuum with carbonatites, but these have too much oxygen to allow carbon to exist in a pure form. Instead, it is trapped in the mineral calcite (CaCO3).

Formation in the room

NASA researchers have discovered large numbers of nanodiamonds in some meteorites. (Nanodiamonds are diamonds that are a few nanometers - billionths of a meter in diameter.) Approximately three percent of the carbon in these meteorites is in the form of nanodiamonds about how are diamonds formed. These diamonds are too small for use as gems or industrial abrasives; however, they are a source of diamond material.

Smithsonian researchers also found large numbers of small diamonds when they carved a sample from the Allen Hills meteorite. These diamonds in meteorites are thought to have formed in space by high-speed collisions, similar to how diamonds form at collision sites on Earth.

What do loose diamonds during production have in common with a pile of coal? More than you might think; in geological terms, loose diamonds are nothing more than glorified chunks of coal. The differences are:

- the arrangement of the carbon atoms
- how each material is formed

Even when it comes to diamond formation, the difference between processes is one of degree rather than mechanics. Here is some interesting information for potential buyers of wholesale certified diamonds.

Carbon is carbon

Some may remember an episode of the old 1950s "Superman" TV series in which Clark Kent created a diamond by compacting a lump of coal in his fist. Although it is doubtful that even the "Man of Steel" can exert such supernatural geological forces deep within the earth, the illustrated concept was essentially correct - those loose diamonds that end up with diamond traders selling them to jewelers are made of carbon exposed to extremely high pressures of 60 kilobars (for comparison, that is 60,000 times the normal air pressure at sea level) and temperatures of more than 2300 degrees Fahrenheit (structural steel melts at around 1520 ° F)!

The pressure and heat needed to make diamond are only found in the Earth's lithosphere, where the crust meets the upper mantle - about 90 - 240 miles below the surface. Diamonds can also arise when a meteorite touches the earth's surface, creates similar conditions or is passed inside the meteorite (some diamonds come from space!).

Coal, on the other hand, is formed from the rotting remains of ancient plant material that is also compressed by geological forces, but much closer to the surface. In chemical terms, carbon atoms that form carbon molecules are arranged in a flat, hexagonal pattern, making them much brittle. In diamonds, however, they are arranged in a tetrahedral or box-like structure about how are diamonds formed. This explains the hardness of loose diamonds.

Can one change the other?

Ultimately, if a coal layer sinks into the earth low enough and is exposed to high pressure and temperature, it can become diamond. Theoretically, diamond can also turn into coal if it is kept free from chemical reactions that color the gems and stabilize the surface, and then be subjected to a vacuum. However, this is unlikely outside of controlled laboratory conditions.

The process of making stones in a laboratory requires a mixture of carbon and graphite and a small amount of seed diamonds. This mixture is then placed in a machine core that is under a pressure of up to 800,000 pounds per square inch at a temperature of more than 1000 degrees. Once a diamond is formed, some manufacturers add a protective coating to improve the light-reflecting properties of the stone. This protective layer is able to cure the stones even further. It is clear that the process of making lab diamonds is almost the same as that of a natural diamond - apart from a few additions from different manufacturers to offer added value to their products. In some cases, these additions are unique to the specific manufacturers. This ability to control the circumstances makes it simpler, much more economical and much less time-consuming.

Most of these pipes do not contain diamonds, or contain such a small amount of diamonds that they are not of commercial interest. However, open-pit and underground mines are developed in these pipes when they contain sufficient diamonds for profitable mining. Diamonds are also weathered and eroded from some of these pipes. Those diamonds are now in the sedimentary (placer) deposits of streams and coastlines about how are diamonds formed.

All three diamonds some bearing rocks (kimberlite, lamproiet and lamprophyre) and lack certain minerals (melilite and kalsilite) which are incompatible with diamond formation. In kimberlite, olivine is large and striking, while lamproiet has Ti-phlogopite and lamprophyre biotite and amphibole. They are all derived from magma types that quickly burst out of small amounts of melt, are rich in volatile substances and magnesium oxide and oxidize less than more conventional mantle melts such as basalt. These properties ensure that the melts carry diamonds to the surface before they dissolve.

A more recent study investigated the origin of blue, boron-containing diamonds that formed at a depth of up to 650 miles (400 miles). These super-deep diamonds also contain inclusions that indicate they were derived from subjugated sea crust.

Is coal involved? Coal is not a likely carbon source for this diamond formation process. The most likely carbon sources of ocean plate subduction are carbonate rocks such as limestone, marble, and dolomite, and possibly plant waste particles in offshore sediments.

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